

§4 I law of thermodynamics, Q, U, A to izoprocesses
Boyle's law
ie the total amount of heat imparted to the gas is consumed in the performance of his work against external forces
that at work expanding the temperature did not change to gas during the isothermal process is necessary to sum up the amount of heat equivalent to the work of foreign expansion.
Of MendeleevClapeyron equation for state 1 and 2:
The physical meaning of R: R is numerically equal to the work by heating 1 mole of gas at 1K (T_{2}  T_{1} = 1 K) in the isobaric process.
heat supplied to the gas, is the change in its internal energy and the work of the commission
V = const, m = const because and
All the warmth imparted by gas, is the change in its internal energy.
§ 5 The adiabatic process. Polytropic process
Called adiabatic process that takes place without heat exchange with the environment. To include all the adiabatic fast processes. For example, an adiabatic process can be regarded as the propagation of sound in the medium, as speed of sound is so high that the energy exchange between the wave and the medium does not have time to happen. Adiabatic processes are used in internal combustion engines, refrigeration, etc. We find the equation relating the parameters of ideal gas at an adiabatic process. We write I law of thermodynamics.
For an adiabatic process
ie external work is done by changing the internal energy of the system
From equation MendeleevClapeyron express p
Rewritten as:
Ie
Potentiated
 Adiabatic equation in the coordinates T and V.
 The Poisson equation (adiabatic equation in the coordinates p and V):
 the adiabatic (or Poisson's ratio). pV = const  isotherm equation as γ > 1, the adiabatic curve is steeper than the isotherm. This is explained by the fact that the adiabatic compression 1  3 increase in gas pressure due not only to a decrease in its volume as an isothermal compression, but also increase in temperature
 adiabatic equation in the coordinates p, T. Compute the work is done by the gas in an adiabatic process. I law of thermodynamics for an adiabatic process
If the gas adiabatically expands from volume V_{1} to V_{2}, its temperature decreases from T_{1} to T_{2}, and the work of expansion of ideal gas
The work done by the gas during the adiabatic expansion 1 2 is equal to square, shaded in the figure and it is less than the work of an isothermal expansion. This is explained by the fact that the adiabatic expansion cools the gas, whereas the isothermal expansion temperature is kept constant by the influx from the outside of the equivalent amount of heat. Considered isochoric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic processes have in common  they occur at constant heat capacity (C_{V}, C_{P}, C_{T} = ∞, C_{A} = 0). In the first two processes are equal to the heat capacity C_{v} and C_{p} in an isothermal process (dT = 0) C_{T} = ∞, in an adiabatic process δQ = 0 and C_{A} = 0. The process in which heat is constant is called polytropic (C = const). Started on the basis of I law thermodynamics at a constant heat capacity (C = const) can be derived polytropic equation
where
n  adiabatic index. When C = 0 n = γ pv^{γ}=const adiabatic equation When C = ∞ n = 1 pV = const  isotherm equation When С = С_{р} n = 0 p = const, isobar equation When С = С_{V} n = ± ∞
Thus, all the processes are special cases of a polytropic process. 